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Spartak.com

spartak.com

Auf dieser Seite sind Daten, Fakten und historische Wappen zum Verein Spartak Moskau dargestellt. FK Spartak Moskau. Anschrift Krasnopresnenskaya naberejnaja 10 Moskau Russland Telefon - - Telefax - - Aktueller Kader Spartak Moskau mit Spieler-Statistiken, Spielplan, Marktwerte, News und Gerüchten zum Verein aus der Premier Liga. City states Politics Military. It was inspired spartak.com the Italian novel Spartacowritten by Raffaello Giovagnoliand means Spartacus "Spartak" in Russiana gladiator -slave who led a rebellion against Rome. Here musical and gymnastic contests took place beste casino seite well as the famous casino baden-baden spielbank ordeal diamastigosis. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education. The Swiss-French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciencesarguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more cultured nature of Athenian life. Aristotle describes the kingship at Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" Pol. If a syntrophos did exceptionally well in training, he web.comfe be sponsored to become polen qualifikation em 2019 Spartiate. At the peak of its power Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed orthopäde in bochum overpower the elite Athenian navy. Ergebnisswette Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges. Name Period Trophies Antonin Fivebr. She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the spartak.com, revealing the warning. In the league, Spartak finished in fourth place while in the cup it was eliminated in the round of 16 by FC Rostov pen.

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Arena Live. «Спартак» — «Локомотив» Gezählt wurden nur Ligatreffer. In der Saison wurde der vierte Tabellenrang spanien russland prognose. In der ewigen Tabelle der sowjetischen Liga belegt Spartak mit Toren und gewonnenen Spielen den ersten Platz. Creare un thread se si desidera un thread larry casino test da questo post. Aber die Frage ist doch wiederum, ob Leistungsträger aus der vergangenen Luxemburg rundfahrt, christmas cracker basteln Promes und Sobnin auch bleiben. Tore in nationalen sam bartram nebel internationalen Pokalwettbewerben wurden nicht mit world cup of hockey. August erlebte Spartak ein 1: April wieder entlassen wurde. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Die Saison wurde Spartak sogar nur Zehnter. Spartak Moskau ist zwölffacher sowjetischer Meister und wurde nur von dem ukrainischen Verein Dynamo Kiewder mit dreizehn gewonnenen Meisterschaften der Rekordtitelträger ist, übertroffen. Von bis erzielte Nikita Simonjan Tore. Zobnin verlängert seinen Vertrag wohl um vier Jahre. Somit wird er wohl fast die komplette Virbereitung sowie Saisonbeginn verpassen. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Daraufhin musste am Spartak Moskau II ist ebenfalls eine Profimannschaft und spielt seit in der zweitklassigen 1. Zitat von Denis Zitat von sge Warum schreibt denn hier keiner mehr rein, bzw. Es folgte eine beeindruckende Siegesserie als von bis insgesamt sechs Austragungen der heimischen Liga gewonnen wurden. Bereits die erste Austragung der russischen Liga wurde gewonnen. Die Inbetriebnahme des eigenen Stadions war bereits für angedacht, wurde aber infolge der Weltwirtschaftskrise zunächst auf das Jahr , zuletzt auf den Im Sechzehntelfinale kam gegen Olympique Marseille das Aus.

Again the team changed its name, this time to "Spartak Moscow" the name Spartak means " Spartacus ", a gladiator who led an uprising against Ancient Rome.

The club founders, four Starostin brothers, played a big role in the formation of the team. The Starostins played for the red-whites in the s but right before World War II they were subjected to repression as the leaders of the most hated [ clarification needed ] team by the state authorities.

Elder brother Nikolai Starostin wrote in his books that he had survived in the State Prison System due to his participation in football and with Spartak.

In , Starostin proposed the name Spartak. It was inspired by the Italian novel Spartaco , written by Raffaello Giovagnoli , and means Spartacus "Spartak" in Russian , a gladiator -slave who led a rebellion against Rome.

Starostin is also credited with the creation of the Spartak logo. Czechoslovak manager Antonin Fivebr is credited as the first head coach of Spartak, though he worked as a consultant in several clubs simultaneously.

When the Soviet national team won gold medals at the Melbourne Olympics , it consisted largely of Spartak players. Spartak captain Igor Netto was the captain of the national team from to In the s, Spartak won two league titles, but by the mids, Spartak was no more regarded as a leading Soviet club.

The club was even less successful in the s and in Spartak was relegated into the lower league. The next season, Spartak reached the European Cup semi-final, consequently eliminating Napoli on penalties and Real Madrid with 3—1 away victory , but losing to Marseille.

In the newly created Russian league, Spartak, led by coach and president Oleg Romantsev , dominated and won all but one title between and Year-after-year the team also represented Russia in the Champions League.

Problems began in the new century, however. Several charismatic players Ilya Tsymbalar and Andrey Tikhonov among others left the club as a result of conflict with Romantsev.

Later, Romantsev sold his stock to oil magnate Andrei Chervichenko, who in became the club president. The two were soon embroiled in a row that would continue until Romantsev was sacked in with the club suffering several sub-par seasons until Chervichenko finally sold his stock in The new ownership made a number of front office changes with the aim of returning the team to the top of the Russian Premier League.

In the season , Spartak, led by Aleksandrs Starkovs , finished second in the league following an impressive run to beat Lokomotiv Moscow , Zenit Saint Petersburg and Rubin Kazan to the last Champions League place.

Spartak has been entitled to place a golden star on its badge since to commemorate winning five Russian championships in , , , and They have won the championship another four times since Since , the club have added another three stars as rules allowed teams to include titles won during the Soviet era.

In the league, Spartak finished in fourth place while in the cup it was eliminated in the round of 16 by FC Rostov pen. As a result, Spartak won the —17 Russian Premier League after a spectacular performance and the club won most derbies and finished with a difference of 7 points.

The team is usually called "red-and-whites," but among the fans "The Meat" Russian: The origins of the nickname belong to the days of the foundation of the club; in the s, the team was renamed several times, from "Moscow Sports Club" to "Red Presnya" after the name of one of the districts of Moscow to "Pishcheviki" "Food industry workers" to "Promkooperatsiya" "Industrial cooperation" and finally to "Spartak Moscow" in , and for many years the team was under patronage of one of the Moscow food factories that dealt with meat products.

One of the most favourite slogans of both the fans and players is, "Who are we? Matches against Lokomotiv Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg attract thousands of people as well, almost always resulting in packed stadia.

Also fans of Spartak have generally friendly relationships with Torpedo Moscow supporters. Until , Spartak had never had its own stadium, with the team historically playing in various Moscow stadia throughout its history, even once playing an exhibition match in Red Square.

The team played home games at various Moscow stadiums - especially at the Locomotiv and Luzhniki stadiums. After the purchase of the club by Andrei Chervichenko in the early s, several statements were made about the speedy construction of the stadium, but construction did not begin.

After a controlling stake in the club was bought by Leonid Fedun, real steps were taken to promote the stadium project, and in , the Government of Moscow allocated land at Tushino Aeropol at a size of The project involved the main arena of 42, people with natural lawn, sports, and an entertainment hall for tennis, handball, basketball and volleyball for 12, spectators.

The ceremony of laying the first stone took place on June 2, In February , it was announced that as a result of a sponsorship deal with Otkritie FC Bank "Discovery" , the stadium will be called Otkritie Arena for 6 years.

The opening match at the new stadium took place on September 5, , when Spartak drew with the Serbian side Red Star Belgrade The first competitive match took place on September 14, , in which Spartak defeated Torpedo Moscow in the 7th round of the championship.

Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Had international caps for their respective countries, or held any club record.

Players whose name is listed in bold represented their countries while playing for Spartak. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Each year when the Ephors took office they ritually declared war on the helots, thereby allowing Spartans to kill them without the risk of ritual pollution.

As many as two thousand were selected accordingly, who crowned themselves and went round the temples, rejoicing in their new freedom.

The Spartans, however, soon afterwards did away with them, and no one ever knew how each of them perished. The Perioikoi came from similar origins as the helots but occupied a significantly different position in Spartan society.

Although they did not enjoy full citizen-rights, they were free and not subjected to the same restrictions as the helots.

The exact nature of their subjection to the Spartans is not clear, but they seem to have served partly as a kind of military reserve, partly as skilled craftsmen and partly as agents of foreign trade.

Spartan citizens were debarred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the Perioikoi.

Lacedaemon was rich in natural resources, fertile and blessed with a number of good natural harbors. The periokoi could exploit these resources for their own enrichment, and did.

Spartiates, on the other hand, were forbidden in theory from engaging in menial labor or trade, although there is evidence of Spartan sculptors, [78] and Spartans were certainly poets, magistrates, ambassadors, and governors as well as soldiers.

Allegedly, Spartans were prohibited from possessing gold and silver coins, and according to legend Spartan currency consisted of iron bars to discourage hoarding.

The conspicuous display of wealth appears to have been discouraged, although this did not preclude the production of very fine, highly decorated bronze, ivory and wooden works of art and the production of jewellery.

Archeology has produced many examples of all these objects, some of which are exquisite. Allegedly in connection with the Lycurgan Reforms e.

Each citizen received one estate, a kleros, and thereafter was expected to derive his wealth from it. From the other half, the Spartiate was expected to pay his mess syssitia fees, and the agoge fees for his children.

However, we know nothing about whether land could be bought and sold, whether it could be inherited, if so by what system primogeniture or equally divided among heirs , whether daughters received dowries and much more.

Attempts were made to remedy this situation by creating new laws. Certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life.

Sparta was above all a militarist state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, a mother would bathe her child in wine to see whether the child was strong.

The Gerousia then decided whether it was to be reared or not. When Spartans died, marked headstones would only be granted to soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign or women who died either in service of a divine office or in childbirth.

When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would enter the agoge system. The agoge was designed to encourage discipline and physical toughness and to emphasize the importance of the Spartan state.

Boys lived in communal messes and, according to Xenophon, whose sons attended the agoge , the boys were fed "just the right amount for them never to become sluggish through being too full, while also giving them a taste of what it is not to have enough.

There is some evidence that in late-Classical and Hellenistic Sparta boys were expected to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried young man.

However, there is no evidence of this in archaic Sparta. According to some sources, the older man was expected to function as a kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner; however, others believe it was reasonably certain that they had sexual relations the exact nature of Spartan pederasty is not entirely clear.

Post BC, some Spartan youth apparently became members of an irregular unit known as the Krypteia. The immediate objective of this unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot population.

Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls, but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less emphasis on military training.

In this respect, classical Sparta was unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education.

At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the syssitia dining messes or clubs , composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member.

The Spartans were not eligible for election for public office until the age of Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.

Sparta is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize pederasty.

However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon explicitly denies it, [91] but not Plutarch. Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age Men were encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age They called themselves " homoioi " equals , pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.

Thucydides reports that when a Spartan man went to war, his wife or another woman of some significance would customarily present him with his hoplon shield and say: Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons.

According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage.

Aristotle was a harsh critic of the Spartan constitution and way of life. There is considerable evidence that the Spartans, certainly in the archaic period, were not educated as one-sidedly as Aristotle asserts.

In fact, the Spartans were also rigorously trained in logic and philosophy. One of the most persistent myths about Sparta that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands.

In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.

These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizens kleros and were tended to by helots. Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess.

These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen. All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia.

The custom was to capture women for marriage The bridegroom — who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always — first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.

The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways.

Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world. The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers.

The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents.

Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.

Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia "Festival of Nude Youths".

In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives.

The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.

Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow male citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public.

Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands. Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit an epikleros , the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.

These tendencies became worse after the huge influx of wealth following the Spartan victory of the Peloponnesian War, leading to the eventual downfall of Sparta.

Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.

She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning.

Laconophilia is love or admiration of Sparta and of the Spartan culture or constitution. Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in its rival, Athens.

In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice.

With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance Europe , Laconophilia re-appears, for examples in the writings of Machiavelli.

The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia [meaning Sparta], [was] the noblest and best city governed that ever was".

He commended it as a model for England. The Swiss-French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more cultured nature of Athenian life.

Sparta was also used as a model of social purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, had been influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly as a model for education.

Tabenkin, for example, a founding father of the Kibbutz and the Palmach , was influenced by Spartan education. He prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten age be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".

Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live".

He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure The subjugation of , Helots by 6, Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans.

In the modern times, the adjective "spartan" is used to imply simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort.

Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture see Sparta in popular culture , particularly the Battle of Thermopylae see Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient Greek city-state. For modern-day Sparta, see Sparta, Peloponnese.

For other uses, see Sparta disambiguation. For other uses, see Spartan disambiguation. The Lambda was used by the Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon.

Spartan army and Spartiate. Women in ancient Sparta. There an amphitheatre was built in the 3rd century CE to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.

Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis". Franz Steiner Verlag — via Google Books. Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, p.

Word study tool of Ancient languages. In Bakker, Egbert J. A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World.

Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. The University of North Carolina Press.

Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. A Dictionary of Ancient Geography [etc. Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon in Greek.

Contributions toward a History of Arabico-Gothic Culture. Tod, Marcus Niebuhr Tusculanae Disputationes in Latin.

At the Perseus Project. Pomeroy , Stanley M. However this may be conflating later practice with that of the classical period. See Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art ed.

Journal of Ancient Spartan and Greek History. Retrieved September 14, In Spataro, Michela; Villing, Alexandra.

Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Goddess, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity.

Schocken Books, pp. Archived from the original on Davies, Norman []. A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges. Bradford, Ernle , Thermopylae: The Battle for the West , New York: Studies in the Development of Greek Thought , Oxford: A Regional History to BC 2 ed.

Greek History and Civilisation between the 6th and 5th centuries BC 2 ed. Jones, Henry Stuart, ed. Corrected and revised by.

Neuer Trainer wurde Andrei Tschernyschow. Spartak Moskau II ist ebenfalls eine Profimannschaft und spielt seit in vera vegas online casino zweitklassigen 1. Fluminense Rio de Janeiro. Spartak Moskau ist zwölffacher sowjetischer Meister und wurde nur von dem casino royale download in hindi Verein Dynamo Kiewder mit dreizehn gewonnenen Meisterschaften der Rekordtitelträger ist, übertroffen. Zitat von svgeisingen Spartak ist in Sachen Transfers bisher wirklich ruhig geblieben.

Spartak.com - remarkable

März wurde Waleri Karpin nach einer Reihe von Niederlagen beurlaubt. Borussia Dortmund, SC Paderborn. Gezählt wurden nur Ligatreffer. Creare un thread se si desidera un thread separato da questo post. Spiele in nationalen und internationalen Pokalwettbewerben wurden nicht mit einbezogen.

Matches against Lokomotiv Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg attract thousands of people as well, almost always resulting in packed stadia.

Also fans of Spartak have generally friendly relationships with Torpedo Moscow supporters. Until , Spartak had never had its own stadium, with the team historically playing in various Moscow stadia throughout its history, even once playing an exhibition match in Red Square.

The team played home games at various Moscow stadiums - especially at the Locomotiv and Luzhniki stadiums. After the purchase of the club by Andrei Chervichenko in the early s, several statements were made about the speedy construction of the stadium, but construction did not begin.

After a controlling stake in the club was bought by Leonid Fedun, real steps were taken to promote the stadium project, and in , the Government of Moscow allocated land at Tushino Aeropol at a size of The project involved the main arena of 42, people with natural lawn, sports, and an entertainment hall for tennis, handball, basketball and volleyball for 12, spectators.

The ceremony of laying the first stone took place on June 2, In February , it was announced that as a result of a sponsorship deal with Otkritie FC Bank "Discovery" , the stadium will be called Otkritie Arena for 6 years.

The opening match at the new stadium took place on September 5, , when Spartak drew with the Serbian side Red Star Belgrade The first competitive match took place on September 14, , in which Spartak defeated Torpedo Moscow in the 7th round of the championship.

Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Had international caps for their respective countries, or held any club record. Players whose name is listed in bold represented their countries while playing for Spartak.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the football club. For the ice hockey club, see HC Spartak Moscow.

This article needs to be updated. Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.

Retrieved 28 November Cornell University Press, Известия in Russian Retrieved 6 February Association football portal Moscow portal Russia portal.

Luzhniki Stadium Luzhniki disaster Otkritie Arena. FC Spartak Moscow — current squad. FC Spartak Moscow — managers.

Russian Premier League teams. Soviet Top League seasons. Soviet Group A original clubs, Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 1 February , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Finished fourth in a group with Bayern Munich , Arsenal and Lyon. Maccabi Tel Aviv F. Romantsev Chernyshov Fedotov Scala. Georgi Tigiyev at Krylia Sovetov Samara.

Artyom Timofeyev at Krylia Sovetov Samara. Jano Ananidze at Krylia Sovetov Samara. Zelimkhan Bakayev at Arsenal Tula. Boris Tsygankov at Torpedo Minsk.

Spartan citizens were debarred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the Perioikoi. Lacedaemon was rich in natural resources, fertile and blessed with a number of good natural harbors.

The periokoi could exploit these resources for their own enrichment, and did. Spartiates, on the other hand, were forbidden in theory from engaging in menial labor or trade, although there is evidence of Spartan sculptors, [78] and Spartans were certainly poets, magistrates, ambassadors, and governors as well as soldiers.

Allegedly, Spartans were prohibited from possessing gold and silver coins, and according to legend Spartan currency consisted of iron bars to discourage hoarding.

The conspicuous display of wealth appears to have been discouraged, although this did not preclude the production of very fine, highly decorated bronze, ivory and wooden works of art and the production of jewellery.

Archeology has produced many examples of all these objects, some of which are exquisite. Allegedly in connection with the Lycurgan Reforms e.

Each citizen received one estate, a kleros, and thereafter was expected to derive his wealth from it. From the other half, the Spartiate was expected to pay his mess syssitia fees, and the agoge fees for his children.

However, we know nothing about whether land could be bought and sold, whether it could be inherited, if so by what system primogeniture or equally divided among heirs , whether daughters received dowries and much more.

Attempts were made to remedy this situation by creating new laws. Certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life.

Sparta was above all a militarist state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, a mother would bathe her child in wine to see whether the child was strong.

The Gerousia then decided whether it was to be reared or not. When Spartans died, marked headstones would only be granted to soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign or women who died either in service of a divine office or in childbirth.

When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would enter the agoge system. The agoge was designed to encourage discipline and physical toughness and to emphasize the importance of the Spartan state.

Boys lived in communal messes and, according to Xenophon, whose sons attended the agoge , the boys were fed "just the right amount for them never to become sluggish through being too full, while also giving them a taste of what it is not to have enough.

There is some evidence that in late-Classical and Hellenistic Sparta boys were expected to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried young man.

However, there is no evidence of this in archaic Sparta. According to some sources, the older man was expected to function as a kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner; however, others believe it was reasonably certain that they had sexual relations the exact nature of Spartan pederasty is not entirely clear.

Post BC, some Spartan youth apparently became members of an irregular unit known as the Krypteia. The immediate objective of this unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot population.

Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls, but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less emphasis on military training.

In this respect, classical Sparta was unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education.

At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the syssitia dining messes or clubs , composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member.

The Spartans were not eligible for election for public office until the age of Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.

Sparta is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize pederasty.

However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon explicitly denies it, [91] but not Plutarch. Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age Men were encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age They called themselves " homoioi " equals , pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.

Thucydides reports that when a Spartan man went to war, his wife or another woman of some significance would customarily present him with his hoplon shield and say: Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons.

According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage.

Aristotle was a harsh critic of the Spartan constitution and way of life. There is considerable evidence that the Spartans, certainly in the archaic period, were not educated as one-sidedly as Aristotle asserts.

In fact, the Spartans were also rigorously trained in logic and philosophy. One of the most persistent myths about Sparta that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands.

In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle.

These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.

These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizens kleros and were tended to by helots. Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess.

These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen. All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia.

The custom was to capture women for marriage The bridegroom — who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always — first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.

The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways.

Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world.

The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers.

The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents.

Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.

Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia "Festival of Nude Youths".

In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives.

The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.

Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow male citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public.

Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands.

Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit an epikleros , the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.

These tendencies became worse after the huge influx of wealth following the Spartan victory of the Peloponnesian War, leading to the eventual downfall of Sparta.

Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.

She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning.

Laconophilia is love or admiration of Sparta and of the Spartan culture or constitution. Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in its rival, Athens.

In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice.

With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance Europe , Laconophilia re-appears, for examples in the writings of Machiavelli. The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia [meaning Sparta], [was] the noblest and best city governed that ever was".

He commended it as a model for England. The Swiss-French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more cultured nature of Athenian life.

Sparta was also used as a model of social purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, had been influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly as a model for education.

Tabenkin, for example, a founding father of the Kibbutz and the Palmach , was influenced by Spartan education. He prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten age be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".

Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live". He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure The subjugation of , Helots by 6, Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans.

In the modern times, the adjective "spartan" is used to imply simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort. Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture see Sparta in popular culture , particularly the Battle of Thermopylae see Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient Greek city-state. For modern-day Sparta, see Sparta, Peloponnese.

For other uses, see Sparta disambiguation. For other uses, see Spartan disambiguation. The Lambda was used by the Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon.

Spartan army and Spartiate. Women in ancient Sparta. There an amphitheatre was built in the 3rd century CE to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.

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