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The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy. These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea and captured numerous vessels.
One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd "Big Gerry" , captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.
In the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown.
In , the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation.
So in — after heated disputes — Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors. At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.
John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen.
In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.
The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.
Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade.
Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications.
In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city remained unoccupied throughout the war.
In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.
Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.
The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.
In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen.
John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.
With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.
Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege. Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.
With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.
When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.
But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.
In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.
From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in In , the French — as they retreated — withdrew from Bremen.
Bremen joined the North German Confederation in and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors.
The first German steamship was manufactured in in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In , Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover , to establish the city of Bremerhaven Port of Bremen as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up.
Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd. In , the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded. Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in ; the aircraft construction company as of [update] forms part of Airbus , [ citation needed ] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft.
Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in , and is today part of Daimler AG. In the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone.
In , Martin Mende founded Nordmende , a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until OHB-System , a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded in The University of Bremen , founded in , is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23, people from countries.
Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser , about 60 kilometres 37 miles upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven.
The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle.
In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany see: List of cities in Germany.
The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter.
The record high temperature was Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0. As in most parts of Germany, the year has been the warmest year on record averaging Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.
Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year counting 84 days with a snow cover.
The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.
Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years. Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city.
This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy.
The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen , which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens.
The current president is Carsten Sieling. More contemporary tourist attractions include:. The skyscraper Weser Tower designed by Helmut Jahn.
Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg. It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place.
Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus A production, assembly of the landing flaps high lift systems is carried out here.
The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section excluding the cockpit of the AM military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.
More than 3, persons are employed at Airbus Bremen, the second largest Airbus site in Germany. The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line.
In addition, Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence — Fuselage and Cabin.
Apart from that there is another link between Bremen and wine: A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen with their German or European headquarters: It has been in operation since The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen-Lower Saxony Transport Association , whose tariff structure applies.
Bremen is home to the football team Werder Bremen , who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in , making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in Only Bayern Munich has won more titles.
In the final match of the —10 season, Werder Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen is the Weserstadion , a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells.
It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy. With students,  the University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut and the Fallturm Bremen.
In , the private Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: Bremen is twinned with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the German city. For the German state consisting of Bremen and Bremerhaven, see Bremen state.
For other uses, see Bremen disambiguation. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Bremen.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Bremen state election, List of people from Bremen and List of mayors of Bremen.
List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Leech explains that it was the habit of cricket patrons, all of whom were gamblers, to form strong teams through the 18th century to represent their interests.
He defines a strong team as one representative of more than one parish and he is certain that such teams were first assembled in or immediately after Prior to the English Civil War and the Commonwealth, all available evidence concludes that cricket had evolved to the level of village cricket only where teams that are strictly representative of individual parishes compete.
The "strong teams" of the post-Restoration mark the evolution of cricket and, indeed of professional team sport, for cricket is the oldest professional team sport from the parish standard to the county standard.
This was the point of origin for major, or first-class , cricket. The year also marks the origin of professional team sport.
Cricket had become well-established among the English upper class in the 18th century, and was a major factor in sports competition among the public schools.
Army units around the Empire had time on their hands, and encouraged the locals to learn cricket so they could have some entertaining competition.
Most of the Empire embraced cricket, with the exception of Canada. A number of the public schools such as Winchester and Eton , introduced variants of football and other sports for their pupils.
These were described at the time as "innocent and lawful", certainly in comparison with the rougher rural games. With urbanization in the 19th century, the rural games moved to the new urban centres and came under the influence of the middle and upper classes.
The rules and regulations devised at English institutions began to be applied to the wider game, with governing bodies in England being set up for a number of sports by the end of the 19th century.
The rising influence of the upper class also produced an emphasis on the amateur, and the spirit of " fair play ". The industrial revolution also brought with it increasing mobility, and created the opportunity for universities in Britain and elsewhere to compete with one another.
This sparked increasing attempts to unify and reconcile various games in England, leading to the establishment of the Football Association in London, the first official governing body in football.
For sports to become professionalized, coaching had to come first. It gradually professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams.
British Prime Minister John Major was the political leader most closely identified with promotion of sports. In he argued:. The British showed a more profound interest in sports, and in greater variety, than any rival.
This was chiefly due to the development of the railway network in the UK before other nations. Allowing for national newspapers, and travel around the country far earlier than in other places.
They gave pride of place to such moral issues as sportsmanship and fair play. Football proved highly attractive to the urban working classes, which introduced the rowdy spectator to the sports world.
In some sports, there was significant controversy in the fight for amateur purity especially in rugby and rowing. New games became popular almost overnight, including golf, lawn tennis, cycling and hockey.
Women were much more likely to enter these sports than the old established ones. The aristocracy and landed gentry, with their ironclad control over land rights, dominated hunting, shooting, fishing and horse racing.
Political responsibility for sport is a devolved matter. As England has no parliament of her own, the United Kingdom Department of Culture, Media and Sport which is headed by a cabinet minister -though the Minister for Sport and Tourism is not in the cabinet- deals with English sport in addition to United Kingdom-wide sports.
The Minister sets out the strategic policy objectives for Sport Wales , who are responsible for the development and promotion of sport and active lifestyles in Wales.
As the Northern Ireland Assembly was reduced in size and a number of departments removed it is not currently March clear who holds political responsibility for Sport in Northern Ireland.
However virtually every team sport is organised on either an all Ireland or United Kingdom-wide basis, with football and netball being the only exceptions.
The Sport and Recreation Alliance is the representative body for sports organisations in the United Kingdom, including federations, players associations, mabagers associations and regional organisations.
A large majority of the funding for elite sport in the United Kingdom is commercially generated, but this is concentrated heavily on a few sports.
Other major sports have a turnover in low nine figures or the tens of millions. Athletics, and also most sports outside the top ten or so in popularity, are heavily dependent on public funding.
The government agency which funnels this is UK Sport , which has affiliates in each of the home nations, for example Sport England.
These agencies are also responsible for distributing money raised for sport by the National Lottery. In , when it was announced London would host the Games, UK Sport announced funding plans which were more focused than ever before on rewarding sports which have delivered Olympic success, and as a corollary penalising those which have not.
UK Sport also provides money for the recreational side of the main team sports, even football. Other sports benefit from special financial provision.
British tennis is subsidised by the profits of the Wimbledon Championships , which are in the tens of millions of pounds each year.
Horse racing benefits from a levy on betting. Following the Budget from 21 March there will be only few tax breaks to British sport in the near future.
A MORI poll found: The British media is dominated by United Kingdom-wide outlets, with local media playing a much smaller role.
Traditionally the BBC played a dominant role in televising sport , providing extensive high-quality advertisement free coverage and free publicity, in exchange for being granted broadcast rights for low fees.
ITV broadcast a smaller portfolio of events. In the early s this arrangement was shaken up by the arrival of pay-TV. BSkyB based its early marketing largely on its acquisition of top division English league football, which was renamed The Premiership as part of the deal.
It has subsequently acquired many more top rights in other sports. However, Sky tends to focus on competitions which can fill its specialist sports channels on a regular basis, and many events are still shown on free to air television, especially annual and quadrennial events such as Wimbledon and the Olympics.
This is often used when all four nations have an International football match on the same evening, but can also be used to show minority interest sports in the country where they are most appreciated for example BBC One Scotland may show the shinty cup final, while BBC One Wales shows a rugby union match between two Welsh sides.
There are also regulations which prevent certain listed events from being sold exclusively to pay television.
Radio sports coverage is also important. It now has a commercial rival called TalkSport , but this has not acquired anywhere near as many exclusive contracts as Sky Sports.
BBC Local Radio also provides extensive coverage of sport, giving more exposure to second-tier clubs which get limited national coverage. All of the national newspapers except the Financial Times devote many pages to sport every day.
Local newspapers cover local clubs at all levels and there are hundreds of weekly and monthly sports magazines.
Four sports in the United Kingdom operate high-profile professional leagues. Football is the most popular sport and is played from August to May.
Rugby league is traditionally a winter sport, but since the late s the elite competition has been played in the summer to minimise competition for attention with football.
Rugby union is also a winter sport. Cricket is played in the Summer, from April to September. The modern global game of football evolved out of traditional football games played in England in the 19th century and today is the highest profile sport in the United Kingdom by a very wide margin.
Each of the four countries in the UK organises its own football league; there are however a few teams who play in another country.
The only major national team competition won by a Home Nation is the World Cup , which England hosted and won, though clubs in both the Scottish and English domestic leagues have had success in European club competitions, most notably the UEFA Champions League or its predecessor the European Cup.
Liverpool , with 5 wins, is the most successful English, and British, team in European football, while the competition has also been won by Manchester United 3 times in total, Nottingham Forest twice, and Aston Villa , from Birmingham and Chelsea from London once each.
The Welsh football league system includes the Welsh Premier League and regional leagues. These leagues have a relatively low profile as rugby union is the national sport of Wales and the top three Welsh football clubs play in the English league system; in addition, one Welsh Premiership club, The New Saints , play their home matches on the English side of the border in Oswestry.
Windsor Park , Linfield F. England and Scotland have both produced winners of each of these competitions. For years until , England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland competed annually in the British Home Championship but these ended for a variety of reasons.
When the idea was first proposed to bring back the competition, the English FA had reservations, and so it was contested by the other three home nations and the Republic of Ireland, who were the first host nation and winners.
The tournament was intended to be played biennially to prevent fixture congestion during World Cup qualification years with the event to be held at the Millennium stadium in Cardiff, the tournament was cancelled after the first year as very few fans were prepared to travel and the tournament did not create the expected revenues.
Scotland and Wales were drawn against each other in World Cup qualification anyway, and a th anniversary friendly was organised between Scotland and England to celebrate the anniversary of the formation of the English F.
No United Kingdom national team is regularly formed for football events in the Olympics. The early reference to the separate national identities in the United Kingdom is perhaps best illustrated by the game of cricket.
Cricket is claimed to have been invented in England. The national sport of England is cricket, but England has no team of its own, instead fielding a joint team with Wales.
Each summer two foreign national teams visit and play seven Test matches and numerous One Day Internationals , and in the British winter the team tours abroad.
The highest profile rival of the team is the Australian team , with which it competes for The Ashes , one of the most famous trophies in British sport.
There are eighteen professional county clubs , seventeen of them in England and one in Wales. Each summer the county clubs compete in the first class County Championship , which consists of two leagues of nine teams and in which matches are played over four days.
The same teams also play the one day National League , a one-day knock out competition called the Friends Provident Trophy , and the short-form Twenty20 Cup.
Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. It is by no means equal to football in finance, attendance or coverage, but it has a high profile nonetheless.
It is probably the second most widely covered sport in England and third most widely covered sport in Wales and the fortunes of the England team are closely followed by many people who never attend a live game.
Scotland and Ireland both have their own cricket teams, but the game is neither as popular nor their teams as successful as the English and Welsh team.
Ireland did not receive Test status until , and Scotland still does not have Test status. Since Ireland did not play its first Test until , Scotland still does not play Tests, and both have only recently started to play in full One Day Internationals, many Scots and Irish previously played in, and captained, the England and Wales side; the current side for example includes Eoin Morgan , a Dublin-born cricketer who has represented Ireland against England at the Cricket World Cup, and captained England against Ireland in Like association football, rugby union and rugby league both developed from traditional British football games in the 19th century.
Rugby football was codified in Dissatisfaction with the governance of the sport led, in , to a number of prominent clubs establishing what would become rugby league.
The estranged clubs, based in mainly working class industrial regions of northern England, had wished to be allowed to compensate their players for missing work to play matches but they had been opposed by those clubs that were predominantly middle class and often based in the south of the country.
Subsequently, rugby league developed somewhat different rules. For much of the 20th century there was considerable antagonism towards rugby league from rugby union.
One Member of Parliament described it as "one of the longest and daftest grievances in history" with anyone over the age of 18 associated with rugby league being banned forever from rugby union.
All four teams are among the top ten in global rugby union. The Six Nations Championship played between the Home Nations, Italy and France is the premier international tournament in the northern hemisphere.
The Triple Crown is awarded to any of the Home Nations who beats the other three in that tournament. Games are also often played against the "Southern Hemisphere" quartet of South Africa , Australia , New Zealand , and Argentina —as well as other rugby playing countries.
England won the Rugby World Cup , the first victory in the competition by a British team or, for that matter, any Northern Hemisphere country , and were runners-up to Australia in and South Africa in In , Wales achieved a best of third place and in , Scotland a best of fourth place.
Ireland has not progressed beyond the quarter finals. Rugby union is generally regarded as the national sport of Wales. England organises its own national league in Premiership Rugby , which launched the Premiership Rugby Cup in —19 to replace the former Anglo-Welsh Cup , which had begun as an England-only competition but included Welsh teams from until its demise in The other Home Nations now have a single professional league, currently known as the Guinness Pro14 , that also includes teams from Italy and South Africa.
Attendances at club rugby in England have risen strongly since the sport went professional; by contrast, the professional era has had a traumatic effect on the traditional structure of club rugby in Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
There was some talk of the regions being redrawn, with the North being divided in two and the South being absorbed into the West and East regions, but two Italian sides instead took the vacated places, and still later the competition added two South African sides.
All of the home nations play in large, state-of-the-art venues. The four home nations also field national sevens teams. In a contrast with football, the participation of Great Britain sevens teams at the Olympics was endorsed by World Rugby then known as the International Rugby Board in Overall rugby league is a smaller sport than rugby union in the United Kingdom , but it draws healthy crowds in its heartlands in Yorkshire and North West England , and is popular with armchair sports fans nationwide.
Before the reorganisation, London Broncos competed in Super League. Until , automatic promotion and relegation existed between Super League and the Championship when it was replaced by three-year licences for clubs to play in the former.
Promotion and relegation returned to Super League and the Championship in The main knock-out competition is the Challenge Cup , which also includes clubs from France and Canada , and in the past has also included clubs from Russia.
Rugby league is also played as an amateur sport, especially in the heartland areas, where the game is administered by BARLA. Since the rugby union authorities ended the discrimination against playing rugby league amateur numbers in the sport have increased, particularly outside the heartland areas.
Through competitions such as the Rugby League Conference the sport is heading towards a national spread, at amateur level at least.
For many tournaments the home nations are combined to compete as Great Britain. The Great Britain team won the Rugby league World Cup in , and , but England and Wales now compete separately in this tournament and Australia have won every World Cup since except in , when they were upset in the final by New Zealand.
The Great Britain team is retained for some competitions, such as with Australia and New Zealand in the recently founded Tri-Nations competition, and in test series such as the Ashes against Australia and the Baskerville Shield against New Zealand.
In , the United Kingdom hosted the Rugby league World Cup for the 5th time, with England and Wales officially serving as joint hosts.
Ice hockey is the only team sport to have a United Kingdom-wide league with at least one team from every nation. It has a long history in the United Kingdom and it is reasonably well supported, with the larger teams attracting thousands of fans to every game.
Media support for ice hockey has improved on a national level, although the majority of news is still found on the internet. Following this Premier Sports picked up the mantle for a number of seasons.
The league currently ranks 12th in Europe. Gaelic games such as Gaelic football and hurling are organised on an all-Ireland basis and are highly popular in Northern Ireland, with a smaller presence in Great Britain.
They are regulated by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Antrim are the only Northern Ireland team in the first tier.
The female equivalent of hurling is called camogie and is played by teams from Northern Irish and London. Gaelic handball with its roots in Scotland is still played at a competitive level in Northern Ireland.
Composite rules shinty-hurling is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players.
Field hockey is the second most popular team recreational sport in the United Kingdom. While hockey receives widespread television coverage during the Olympics, coverage outside that is small, especially relative to its participation level.
Shinty or camanachd is an amateur sport indigenous to the Scottish Highlands. Although it is mostly restricted to this area it is highly popular within the Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in what is the most sparsely populated region of the United Kingdom.
It is administered by the Camanachd Association. Its main trophies are the Camanachd Cup  and the Premier Division. There are clubs in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London however and it was once played throughout Scotland and England until the early 20th Century.
Australian rules football is a growing amateur sport in the United Kingdom. The Grand Final is an event that regularly attracts growing audience of up to 5, Great Britain has a national team the British Bulldogs , it regularly competes in international matches and has competed in the Australian Football International Cup since its inception in Exhibition matches are regularly scheduled for The Oval in London, and despite the fact that few Britons know of the sport, the most recent match attracted a record crowd of 18, .
Premier, 1 and 2, with Premier and 1 divided into a North and South conference with Coventry being the Most Southern of the Northern teams while division 2 is further split into 4 conferences, North becoming North Scotland and Carlisle and Central and the South being split into East and West.
The Championship participants are promoted to the divisions above and the lowest-ranking teams in each division are relegated. Previously, many of these teams competed in the BAFL which entered administration in The national team is known as the GB Lions and represents the United Kingdom in international gridiron.
Despite the minor status of the sport in the United Kingdom, the NFL has played at least one game each season at Wembley Stadium since Wembley has hosted multiple games in each season since , and the series has since expanded to include other locations in London.
Twickenham began hosting NFL games in , and the primary site for London games will switch from Wembley to the new Tottenham Hotspur stadium once it opens in Once invented in England, bandy has been virtually unknown in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th Century, but this hockey sport played on ice with rules similar to football has been taken up again.
There are plans to form a national team for the Bandy World Championship. Basketball is a minor sport in the United Kingdom. While following an American franchise format rather than using promotion and relegation like most European leagues, the majority of recent additions have come from the English league.
As with football, the home nations teams were encouraged to work together for the Olympics, while British international basketball teams have not achieved any major successes since then, FIBA officials stated that if they re-entered the European competition after the Olympics as individual nations, they will be treated as unranked newcomers.
As with American football the NBA have arranged regular season matches in London for several years now, the most recent being a game between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers at the O2 Arena , London.
The idea of a single team or pair of teams relocating to London and Berlin was dismissed as uneconomical due to the distances involved for away fixtures.
A piece on the web outlet of US sports media giant ESPN explored why British basketball has so far failed to develop players to the degree of countries such as France, Germany and Australia.
A survey by Sport England found that basketball was the third most-played sport among the 14—25 age group in England, just behind rugby union in numbers—but both sports combined have less than one-third the participation of football.
Another issue is politically related. The British government provided many sports, including basketball, with major funding in advance of the Olympics.
The sport also currently lacks private funding, with Amaechi claiming that many British BBL players are not paid living wages.
Finally, until very recent years, British players were reluctant to develop themselves in the more competitive leagues of continental Europe. Motorcycle speedway , usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.
Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale.
The United Kingdom has three domestic leagues, the Elite League. The Speedway Grand Prix is the main world championship for standalone riders with an event taking place in Cardiff each year.
Rounders is a bat-and-ball base-running game played on a diamond. A maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time.
Touch or Touch Rugby is a limited-contact sport variant of rugby football. It is typically played with a mixed-gender team of six three men and three women , with single-gender and age group variants.
Teams play on a 70m by 50m pitch with rolling substitutions. There are no set pieces e. Scores are made by grounding the ball over the scoreline as in Rugby Union or League; a team is allowed six touches in possession to attempt a score before the ball is turned over to the opposition.
More than a thousand players across over 40 clubs  are registered to play in these competitions. There are also substantial local and regional competitions, many run with the involvement of O2 Touch.
Athletics does not have a very high profile in Britain on a week-in week-out basis, but it leaps to prominence during major championships. The level of attention received by successful British athletes is illustrated by the fact that athletes have won far more BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards than practitioners of any other sport.
There are also semi-independent athletics associations in each of the home nations. Over the last few decades British athletes have usually won between one and three gold medals at the Olympics; the Games in London saw three British athletes win four golds single golds by Jessica Ennis and Greg Rutherford , and two by Mo Farah.
However, there remain serious concerns about the depth of the sport in Britain, with the number of club athletes reportedly in decline.
Two high-profile annual athletics events are the London Marathon and the Great North Run , which is a half marathon.
The United Kingdom played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing , with the codification of the rules of the sport known as the Queensberry Rules , named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in Some of the best contemporary British boxers included; super-middleweight champion Joe Calzaghe , featherweight champion Naseem Hamed , and heavyweight champion Lennox Lewis.
British professional boxing offers some of the largest purses outside the United States to a few elite professional boxers who become nationally known.
British heavyweight contenders are especially popular, but most British world champions have fought in the middle weight bracket. The governing body of professional boxing is the British Boxing Board of Control.
It is generally felt that British professional boxing is in decline in the early years of the 21st century. The reasons for this include: Amateur boxing is governed by separate bodies in each home nation.
At Olympic, World and European events, home nation boxers with the exception of N. Ireland compete under the GB podium squad banner.
The amateur sport is steadily recovering from a decline that reached a peak in the late s, with dramatic increases in boxer numbers driven by recent GB podium squad success, most notably at the London Olympics.
Mixed martial arts MMA has come a huge way.