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Frankreich c

frankreich c

Jan. Frankreich. Die drei großen „C“. Schon die Wikinger wussten die Vorzüge der Normandie zu schätzen. Sie wählten die Region im Nordwesten. Frankreich: Wetter in Ajaccio, - Am Samstag ist es tagsüber sehr sonnig. Die Nacht zum Sonntag bringt teils stark bewölktes, aber meist trockene. Über Sehenswürdigkeiten in Frankreich informiert diese Seite ausführlich. Oft stehen in Frankreich. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. Es bietet usa prasident höchstens der Flughafen Toulouse an, wobei man ab dem Bahnhof Toulouse-Matiabau doch noch Minimum 1h 10'- 1h 30' ans Mittelmeer Narbonne fährt Transfer Flughafen-Bahnhof nicht mitgerechnet! Im Süden wird das Land vom Mittelmeer begrenzt. Herbstmeister bundesliga Strand von Trouville-sur-Mer ist für seine tollen Villen bekannt. Mai, Tag der Arbeit, gilt auch für die meisten Restaurants! Die Frühtemperaturen liegen um 1 Grad. Rotwein des Jahres finale darten Millionen von Fernsehzuschauern versammeln sich an einem Samstag vor dem Fernseher und schreiben mit. Januar ist normalerweise alles, auch Museen, geschlossen. Diese Praxis nimmt aber ab. Innerhalb dieser höchsten Casino monte carlo slot machines gibt es noch eine weiter gehende Differenzierung, die einer bestimmten Lage oder einem Gebiet z. Beliebte Weine aus online casinos with real money Kategorie:.

Religious buildings in France. Notre Dame de Paris. Monasteries in France and Abbeys in France. Grand Mosque of Paris. Ancient Roman architecture in France.

Romanesque art in France. Gothic art in France. Renaissance art in France. Baroque art in France. Art Nouveau in France.

Modern movement architecture in France. Venus of Brassempouy July Column place de la Bastille , Paris. Voltaire Naked Louvre Museum, Paris.

Equestrian statue of Vercingetorix place de Jaude , Clermont-Ferrand. Maurice Quentin de La Tour. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon.

Biscuit rose de Reims. The feast of the main stream. Festival Interceltique de Lorient. Henry IV of France. Louis XIV of France. Louis XV of France.

Storming of the Bastille. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette.

Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. The Coronation of Napoleon. Patrice de Mac-Mahon, Duke of Magenta. Heads of state of France. Charles de Gaulle - , - Georges Pompidou - Jacques Chirac - , - Nicolas Sarkozy - Emmanuel Macron - Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant.

Port of Le Havre. SS France Ocean liner. Gare du Nord Metro station. Paris-Gare de Lyon facade. Paris-Gare de Lyon interior.

Gare de Paris-Est facade. Gare de Paris-Est interior. Spas in France and Spa towns in France. Tourism in France and Resorts in France.

Ski resorts in France. Spa towns in France. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.

Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child.

It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.

This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.

It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country.

A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries.

This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.

They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f.

This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability.

Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.

This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.

Unemployment, youth ages This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year. Also see the Terminology note.

This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies.

Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state. For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.

For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Fete de la Federation, 14 July ; note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille on 14 July and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale National Holiday and quatorze juillet 14th of July.

The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.

A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.

Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister. This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Senate or Senat seats - for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale seats - for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms.

Senate - last held on 24 September next to be held on 24 September National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June next to be held in June A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.

The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal ; Constitutional Council consists of 9 members.

Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years.

Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne female personification ; national colors: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-.

GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.

This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.

Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.

The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.

This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.

Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices: Central bank discount rate: Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.

Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme.

Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.

The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated.

It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated.

The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.

This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours.

This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours.

This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity.

A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl.

Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.

Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.

Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.

Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o.

This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.

This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection.

The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

Broadband - fixed subscriptions: This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance.

The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.

Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.

The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.

The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.

Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.

For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.

This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails.

The four typical types of gauges are: Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries.

The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp. This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions.

This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water. Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels as opposed to all nonmilitary ships , which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.

This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca. This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis.

In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. Le Havre 2,, LNG terminal s import: Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre.

This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product GDP ; the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.

For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police. This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces.

Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.

Terrorist groups - foreign based: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another.

Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute.

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.

However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.

France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.

Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.

However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.

In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.

Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s. As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2.

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.

The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.

France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.

It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture.

This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.

France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra.

French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.

There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.

There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.

There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille , [] which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period.

It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.

France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability [] and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize [] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.

With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany. France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.

As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.

A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.

There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek.

France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.

According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.

France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in [] being Paris 12,, inh. There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.

Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French, [] a Romance language derived from Latin.

The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.

In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.

The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.

From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.

For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English, [] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.

The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.

It is estimated that between million [] and million [] people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.

According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.

Religion in France [2]. France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.

In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament. It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.

Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.

The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.

Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.

Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries, [] [] [] [] [] [] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.

Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.

In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.

Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.

Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship. Secondary education also consists of two phases.

France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.

The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.

France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.

The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.

The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.

The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works.

During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.

Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe, [] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.

However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.

On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.

The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.

The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar.

Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.

Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.

France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.

S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.

Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade. In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.

French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.

French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.

The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France.

In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories. Great Seal of France. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi. Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul.

Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages. Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty.

France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century. France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire.

Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France. Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people.

Largest cities or towns in France census. Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.

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During the Reformation, the popularity of the Mont declined, and during the French Revolution it became a prison which finally closed in Close up of some of the impressive fortifications at Mont-Saint-Michel.

The cloisters at Mont-Saint-Michel. Shops in the town of Cognac, where the famous brandy distilled wine was first developed. The Chateau fort de Lourdes, which overlooks the town, occupies a strategic position in the Pyrenees.

Parts of the structure date back to Roman times. Pilgrims and visitors at Lourdes. The Rosary Basilica in the foreground serves as an entranceway to the larger Basilica of the Immaculate Conception behind.

Lourdes is the reputed site of 18 Marian apparitions in Some of the massive walls at the fortified town of Carcassone. A section of the fortifications at Chateau Comtal, part of the larger defenses at the fortress of Carcassone.

A street scene on a rainy day in the fortified town of Carcassone. The ancient Roman arena at Nimes is still in use today. In subsequent centuries it served as a church, a meeting hall, a storehouse, and a stable.

In it became a museum. The Roman aqueduct at Pont du Gard, built during the mid-first century A. Built entirely without the use of mortar, its construction is thought to have taken about three years using to 1, workers.

The city of Avignon in southeastern France is well known as the former seat of the papacy in the 14th century. A beach at Nice.

The city is a major tourist center and a leading resort along the French Riviera. Farmers market in Nice. Flowers drip from balconies in the town of Saint-Paul de Vence in Provence.

A street market in Beaune, a town located in the heart of the Burgundy wine region. A street scene in Dijon, the capital of the Burgundy region.

The city was first settled by the Romans and then became the domain of the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the area until the late s.

It is known for its many architectural styles and hosts the annual Dijon International and Gastronomic Fair. A cafe on a canal in Colmar.

The town, situated on the Alsatian Wine Route, was founded in the 9th century. It reverted to France in Buildings along a canal in Colmar, an Alsatian town known as "Little Venice.

Half timbered houses along a shopping street in old Colmar. A street scene in old Colmar. The picturesque town is a tourist magnet; it annually hosts the Alsatian Wine Fair.

Street scene in the Alsatian town of Colmar. Colorful houses along a canal in Colmar, an Alsatian town with the sobriquet of "Little Venice.

Matthew in the Alsatian town of Colmar was built in the 13th century. Colorful house in the medieval Alsatian town of Riquewihr.

The locale is renowned not only for its historic architecture, but also for the fine wines it produces. The road into Ingersheim on the Alsatian Wine Route.

Vineyards along the Alsatian Wine Route. This church, built in , replaced one dating to medieval times. Street scene in Eguisheim along the Alsace Wine Trail.

Old wine press along the streets of Eguisheim. Strolling through the streets of Eguisheim. Street scene along the flower-lined streets of Eguisheim.

Strasbourg Cathedral was begun in and completed in Although it displays some elements of Romanesque style, it is widely considered to be among the finest examples of high Gothic architecture.

Inside is an unusually accurate clock that has been built and rebuilt three times over the centuries, and which indicates a variety of astronomical data.

The animated figures still move to indicate the hours of the day. The famous west portal of the Strasbourg Cathedral is in the Gothic style and has hundreds of figures sculpted into it.

Rose windows, such as this one in Strasbourg Cathedral, are a common feature of Gothic architecture. Grande Ile is in the Ill River, which runs through Strasbourg.

The entire island has been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its buildings showing developing stages of architecture - beginning in the medieval period and working up to the classical period.

Besides Strasbourg Cathedral there are four other venerable churches, as well as the Palais Rohan, a former residence of the prince-bishops of the area.

Constructed in , the structure housed the port and tax authorities, and was used to store and transform goods and merchandise going up and down the Rhine River.

Today the building houses a restaurant. A sightseeing boat along the Ill River in Strasbourg. Walkway along the Ill River in Strasbourg.

A view of the western side of Strasbourg Cathedral. Only one spire was ever completed. View of the Strasbourg Cathedral roof from its spire.

Some of the flying buttresses supporting the cathedral walls can be clearly seen. Looking down on Strasbourg from the Cathedral.

Strasbourg is the capital of the Alsace region and the Bas-Rhin department. It is an important center of manufacturing and engineering, and has a port on the Rhine River.

The Celts first settled the site in about B. It became a part of the Roman Empire in 12 B. The University of Strasbourg is the largest university in France.

The square, constructed between and , was the brainchild of Stanislas Leszczynski, Duke of Lorraine and former King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nancy became a French province on the death of Stanislas in In , the heads of three countries - Germany, Poland, and France - met here to inaugurate the renovated Place Stanislas.

A statue of Stanislas Leszczynski stands in front of the Town Hall. The Neptune Fountain is one of four waterworks erected by Barthelemy Guibal in Stanislas Square in Nancy; this one was completed in It was erected in the 14th century, and its towers were used as prisons for many years.

Its bell also formerly tolled the curfew. The facade displays a distinctive Lorraine Cross, since the city was the former capital of the Duchy of Lorraine.

By tradition, this is the castle Charles Perrault had in mind when he wrote the Sleeping Beauty fairy tale. The mansion of Clos Luce in Amboise is connected to the nearby royal Chateau by an underground passageway.

It served as the residence of Leonardo da Vinci for the last three years of his life The mansion currently is the museum for the surrounding region and displays 40 models of machines developed by Leonardo.

The Chateau de Chenonceau in the Loire Valley was built in the early 16th century. Statue of Dom Perignon in the town of Epernay. The Benedictine monk made many important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wines.

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Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.

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When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.

French Guiana - total: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.

This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin; Martinique: This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.

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This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.

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Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t.

This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Frenchman men , Frenchwoman women.

This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages.

When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.

For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. French, Creole patois, Mahorian a Swahili dialect.

This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.

Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

This is the population pyramid for France. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.

The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

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See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high.

The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.

The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.

Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population.

An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.

This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.

The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th.

Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented.

This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.

Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child.

It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.

This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme.

This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP.

This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.

They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f.

This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.

This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.

Unemployment, youth ages This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year.

Also see the Terminology note. This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows.

Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.

For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

Fete de la Federation, 14 July ; note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille on 14 July and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale National Holiday and quatorze juillet 14th of July.

The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.

A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a. Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister.

This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Senate or Senat seats - for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale seats - for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms.

Senate - last held on 24 September next to be held on 24 September National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June next to be held in June A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.

The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.

Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal ; Constitutional Council consists of 9 members.

Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years.

Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.

Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne female personification ; national colors: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-.

GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Frankreich c - apologise, but

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